Naomi WATTS

* 28.09.1968, Shoreham, Kent, England, GB

Schauspielerin * wächst in England und Wales auf * 1982 zieht mit ihrer Familie nach Australien (Sydney) um * 1985 erhält erste kleine Filmrolle in For Love Alone * tritt in Werbespots auf * versucht sich erfolglos als Model und arbeitet zeitweise in einem Kaufhaus in Sydney, später bei einem Modemagazin * entscheidet sich schließlich für die Schauspielerei und spielt in folgenden Jahren kleine Rollen in Kinofilmen (Flirting, 1989; Wide Sargasso Sea, 1991) und Fernsehserien (Hey Dad..!, 1990; Home and Away, 1991; Brides of Christ, 1991) * 1992 spielt erste große Rolle in Gross Misconduct - wagt anschließend den großen Sprung nach Hollywood und erlebt ziemlich enttäuschende und frustrierende Zeit ("At first, everything was fantastic and doors were opened to me. But some people who I met through Nicole [Kidman], who had been all over me, had difficulty remembering my name when we next met. There were a lot of promises, but nothing actually came off. I ran out of money and became quite lonely, but Nic gave me company and encouragement to carry on." | "It is a tough town. I think my spirit has taken a beating. The most painful thing has been the endless auditions. Knowing that you have something to offer, but not being able to show it, is so frustrating. As an unknown, you get treated badly. I auditioned and waited for things I did not have any belief in, but I needed the work and had to accept horrendous pieces of shit.") * feiert erst 2001 ihren Durchbruch in David Lynchs Mulholland Drive und etabliert sich in folgenden Jahren im amerikanischen bzw. internationalen Kino * 2004/05 dreht ihren kommerziell erfolgreichsten Film (King Kong) * 2012 verkörpert Prinzessin Diana in Oliver Hirschbiegels kontroversen und stark kritisierten Filmbiografie Diana ("It's definitely risky. But having said that, it's a story that has to be told. We like to look back on big stories, and it's a little fresher, perhaps, than Henry VIII.") * ab 2017 wirkt wieder verstärkt in Fernsehproduktionen mit (Serie Gypsy, 2017; Serie The Loudest Voice, 2019) * Lebensgefährtin von Liev Schreiber (2005-16) | Bild(quelle): kinopoisk.ru


"For the record, I am actually British as well as Australian. People always think I'm Australian but I'm happy for the Brits to claim me back. I'm offering myself up."

"Yeah, I suppose I am ordinarily drawn to the darker stuff. You won't find me in a romantic comedy. Those movies don't speak to me. People don't come to talk to me about those scripts, because they probably think I'm this dark, twisted, miserable person."

FILMS

For Love Alone (Nur die Liebe allein, 1985-AUS * Stephen Wallace ... bit als Leos Freundin) (03-10 Wochen; 8605)

Flirting (Flirting, 1989-AUS * John Duigan ... bit als Janet Odgers) (04-05; 9103)

Wide Sargasso Sea (Sargasso Sea - Im Meer der Leidenschaft, 1991-USA/AUS * John Duigan ... bit als Fanny Grey) (07-09; 9304)

Matinee (Matinée, 1992-USA * Joe Dante ... bit) (04-06; 9301)

Gross Misconduct (Verführt - Schuldig oder nicht schuldig ?, 1992-AUS; R: George T. Miller, B: Lance Peters, Gerard Maguire, K: David Connell, M: Bruce Rowland, D: Jimmy Smits: Justin Thorne, Naomi Watts: Jennifer Carter, Sarah Chadwick: Laura Thorne) 96m-Gerichtsdrama (Bühnenstück Assault with a Deadly Weapon von Lance Peters, 1969) (07-08; 9307)

The Custodian (Doppeltes Spiel, 1992-AUS * John Dingwall ... bit als Louise) (11-12; 9403 > limited release)

Tank Girl (Tank Girl, 1994-USA; R: Rachel Talalay, B: Tedi Sarafian, K: Gale Tattersall, M: Graeme Revell, D: Lori Petty: Rachel Buck/Tank Girl, Ice-T, Naomi Watts: Jet Girl & Malcolm McDowell: Kesslee) 104m-Fantasyabenteuer (06-09; 9503, LA)

Children of the Corn IV: The Gathering (Kinder des Zorns IV - Mörderischer Kult, 1995-USA; R: Greg Spence, B: Stephen Berger, Greg Spence, K: Richard Clabaugh, M: David C. Williams, D: Naomi Watts: Grace Rhodes, Brent Jennings: Donald Atkins, Samaria Graham: Mary Anne, Jamie Renée Smith: Margaret Rhodes, Brandon Kleyla: Josiah & William Windom: Doktor Rob Larson & Karen Black: June Rhodes) 82/5m-Horror (Kurzgeschichte Children of the Corn von Stephen King, 1977) (04-09) > nur Video/vertrieb (R # 34662; 9610)

Under the Lighthouse Dancing (1995-AUS; d: Graeme Rattigan, B: David Giles, Graeme Rattigan, K: Paul Murphy, M: Nerida Tyson-Chew, D: Jack Thompson: Harry, Jacqueline McKenzie: Emma, Naomi Watts: Louise, Aden Gillett: David, Phillip Holder: Garth, Zoe Bertram: Juliet) 94m-Romantische Komödie (10-12; 9710)

Persons Unknown (Täter unbekannt, 1996-USA; R: George Hickenlooper, B: Craig Smith, K: Richard Crudo, M: Ed Tomney, D: Joe Mantegna: Jim Holland * Kelly Lynch: Amanda * Naomi Watts: Molly L. Chenoweth * J.T. Walsh: Cake, Xander Berkeley: Tosh, Jon Favreau: Terry) 99m-Thriller (02-?; 9712-GB) > USA: TVM (9612)

Dangerous Beauty (Gefährliche Schönheit - Die Kurtisane von Venedig, 1996-USA; R: Marshall Herskovitz, B: Jeannine Dominy, K: Bojan Bazelli, M: George Fenton, D: Catherine McCormack: Veronica Franco * Rufus Sewell: Marco Venier, Oliver Platt: Maffio Venier, Moira Kelly: Beatrice Venier, Naomi Watts: Giulia de Lezze, Fred Ward: Domenico Venier, Jacqueline Bisset: Paola Franco) 114m-Kostümdrama (Buch The Honest Courtesan von Margaret Rosenthal, 1992) (04-07; 9802)

Strange Planet (Strange Planet, 1998-AUS; R: Emma-Kate Croghan, B: Stavros Kazantzidis, Emma-Kate Croghan, K: Justin Brickle, MS: Roger Grierson, Leah Warwick, Gary Seeger, D: Claudia Karvan: Judy, Naomi Watts: Alice, Alice Garner: Sally, Tom Long: Ewan, Aaron Jeffery: Joel, Felix Williamson: Neil & Hugo Weaving: Steven) 96m-Komödie (08-35 Tage; 9910)

Down (Down * Fahrstuhl in den Tod, 2000-NL; R+B: Dick Maas, K: Marc Felperlaan, M: Paul M. van Brugge, D: James Marshall: Mark Newman ° Naomi Watts: Jennifer Evans ° Eric Thal: Jeffrey, Michael Ironside: Gunter Steinberg, Edward Herrmann: Milligan & Ron Perlman: Mitchell & Dan Hedaya: Lt. McBain) 110m-Horrorthriller (07-08 ? 03-05 > IMDB; 0109)

Mulholland Drive / Mulholland Dr. (1999-00-F/USA * David Lynch ... Betty Elms/Diane Selwyn) (02-03?05 +10.00; 0110)

Plots with a View (2001-GB * Nick Hurran ... Meredith Mainwaring) (10-?; 0306-D)

The Ring (The Ring, 2001/02-USA; R: Gore Verbinski, B: Ehren Kruger, K: Bojan Bazelli, M: Hans Zimmer, D: Naomi Watts: Rachel Keller, Martin Henderson: Noah & Brian Cox: Richard Morgan) 115m-Horrorthriller (Roman Ringu von Koji Suzuki, 1991) (11-04; 0210)

Le divorce (2002-USA * James Ivory ... Roxeanne de Persand) (Roman von Diane Johnson) (03-06; 0308)

Ned Kelly (2002-AUS/GB * Gregor Jordan ... Julia Cook) (Roman von Robert Drewe) (04-07; 0303)

21 Grams (2002/03-USA * Alejandro González Iñárritu ... Cristina Peck) (12-03; 0311)

We Don't Live Here Anymore (Wir leben nicht mehr hier, 2003-USA; R: John Curran, B: Larry Gross, K: Maryse Alberti, M: Michael Convertino, D: Mark Ruffalo: Jack Linden * Laura Dern: Terry Linden * Peter Krause: Hank Evans & Naomi Watts: Edith Evans) 102m-Drama (Kurzgeschichten We Don't Live Here Anymore /1984/ & Adultery /1977/ von Andre Dubus) (04-06; 0408)

I Heart Huckabees (2003-USA/D; R: David O. Russell, B: David O. Russell, Jeff Baena, K: Peter Deming, M: Jon Brion, D: Dustin Hoffman: Bernard * Isabelle Huppert: Caterine Vauban * Jude Law: Brad Stand * Jason Schwartzman: Albert Markovski * Lily Tomlin: Vivian * Mark Wahlberg: Tommy Corn * Naomi Watts: Dawn Campbell) 106m-Komödie (06-09; 0410)

The Assassination of Richard Nixon (2003-USA * Niels Mueller ... Marie Bicke) (09-11; 0412)

Stay (Stay, 2003/04-USA; R: Marc Forster, B: David Benioff, K: Roberto Schaefer, M: Asche & Spencer, D: Ewan McGregor: Sam Foster * Naomi Watts: Lila Culpepper * Ryan Gosling: Henry Letham, Janeane Garofalo: Dr. Beth Levy, Bob Hoskins: Dr. Leon Patterson) 99m-Mysterythriller (09-01; 0510)

Ellie Parker (Elli Parker, 2000-04-USA; R+B: Scott Coffey, K: Scott Coffey, Blair Mastbaum, M: Neil Jackson, D: Naomi Watts: Ellie Parker, Rebecca Rigg: Sam, Scott Coffey: Chris) 95m-Komödie (0511)

The Ring Two (The Ring 2 [- Das Grauen kehrt zurück], 2004-USA; R: Hideo Nakata, B: Ehren Kruger, K: Gabriel Beristain, M: Hans Zimmer, D: Naomi Watts: Rachel Keller, Simon Baker: Max Rourke, David Dorfman: Aidan, Elizabeth Perkins: Dr. Emma Temple & Sissy Spacek: Evelyn) 110m-Horrorthriller [Roman von Koji Suzuki, 1991] (05-11; 0503)

King Kong (King Kong, 2004/05-NZ/USA; R: Peter Jackson, B: Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Peter Jackson, K: Andrew Lesnie, ACS/ASC M: James Newton Howard, D: Naomi Watts: Ann Darrow * Jack Black: Carl Denham * Adrien Brody: Jack Driscoll, Thomas Kretschmann: Kapitän Englehorn, Colin Hanks: Preston, Jamie Bell: Jimmy & Andy Serkis: Kong [motion capture]/Lumpy) 187m-Abenteuerdrama (09-03/+07-08; 0512)

The Painted Veil / Mian sha (Der bunte Schleier, 2005-USA/VRC; R: John Curran, B: Ron Nyswaner, K: Stuart Dryburgh, M: Alexandre Desplat, D: Naomi Watts: Kitty Fane * Edward Norton: Walter Fane, Liev Schreiber: Charlie Townsend, Diana Rigg: Mutter Oberin) 125m-Drama (Roman von W. Somerset Maugham, 1925) (08-11; 0612)

Funny Games (Funny Games U.S., 2006-GB/F/D/I; R+B: Michael Haneke, K: Darius Khondji, D: Naomi Watts: Ann * Tim Roth: George * Michael Pitt: Paul * Brady Corbet: Peter, Devon Gearhart: Georgie) 112m-Psychothriller (09-10; 0803)

Eastern Promises (2006/07-GB/CDN * David Cronenberg ... Anna) (11-02; 0709)

The International (2007-USA/GB/D; R: Tom Tykwer, B: Eric Warren Singer, K: Frank Griebe, M: Tom Tykwer, Johnny Klimek, Reinhold Heil, D: Clive Owen: Louis Salinger * Naomi Watts: Eleanor Whitman, Armin Mueller-Stahl: Wilhelm Wexler, Brían F. O'Byrne: The Consultant) 118m-Thriller (09-12; 0902)

Mother and Child (2009-USA * Rodrigo García ... Elizabeth) (02-04; 1005)

Fair Game (Fair Game * Fair Game - Nichts ist gefährlicher als die Wahrheit, 2009-USA; R: Doug Liman, B: Jez Butterworth, John-Henry Butterworth, K: Doug Liman, M: John Powell, D: Naomi Watts: Valerie Plame * Sean Penn: Joseph [Joe] Wilson) 108m-Politdrama (Buch The Politics of Truth von Joseph C. Wilson /2004/ + Buch Fair Game von Valerie Plame Wilson /2007/) (04-06; 1011)

You Will Meet a Tall Dark Stranger / Conocerás al hombre de tus sueños (Ich sehe den Mann Deiner Träume, 2009-USA/E; R+B: Woody Allen, K: Vilmos Zsigmond, D: Antonio Banderas: Greg, Josh Brolin: Roy, Anthony Hopkins: Alfie, Gemma Jones: Helena, Freida Pinto: Dia, Lucy Punch: Charmaine, Naomi Watts: Sally) 98m-Tragikomödie (07-08; 1008)

Dream House (Dream House, 2010-USA; R: Jim Sheridan, B: David Loucka, K: Caleb Deschanel, M: John Debney, D: Daniel Craig: Will Atenton * Naomi Watts: Ann Patterson * Rachel Weisz: Libby, Marton Csokas: Jack Patterson, Elias Koteas: Boyce, Jane Alexander: Dr. Greeley) 92m-Mysterythriller (02-04; 1109)

Movie 43 (Movie 43, 2010-USA > Homeschooled * R: Will Graham, B: Will Graham, Jack Kukoda, K: William Rexer, M: William Goodrum, D: Liev Schreiber: Robert, Naomi Watts: Samantha) 94m-Episodenkomödie (03-05; 1301)

Lo imposible / The Impossible (The Impossible * The Impossible - Überleben ist alles, 2010/11-E; R: Juan Antonio Bayona, B: Sergio G. Sánchez, K: Oscar Faura, M: Fernando Velázquez, D: Naomi Watts: Maria Bennett * Ewan McGregor: Henry Bennett * Tom Holland: Lucas Bennett, Samuel Joslin: Thomas, Oaklee Pendergast: Simon, Marta Etura: Simone, Sönke Möhring: Karl & Geraldine Chaplin: alte Frau) 113m-Drama (08-02?06 > 25 Wochen; 1210)

J. Edgar (J. Edgar, 2011-USA; R: Clint Eastwood, B: Dustin Lance Black, K: Tom Stern, M: Clint Eastwood, D: Leonardo DiCaprio: J. Edgar Hoover, Naomi Watts: Helen Gandy, Armie Hammer: Clyde Tolson, Josh Lucas: Charles Lindbergh & Judi Dench: Anna Marie Hoover) 136m-Biografie (02-04; 1111)

Sunlight Jr. (2011-USA; R+B: Laurie Collyer, K: Igor Martinovic, M: J. Mascis, D: Naomi Watts: Melissa * Matt Dillon: Richie, Norman Reedus: Justin & Tess Harper: Kathleen) 90/5m-Drama (10-4 Wochen; 1311 > limited release)

Two Mothers / Adore / Perfect Mothers (Tage am Strand, 2012-AUS/F; R: Anne Fontaine, B: Christopher Hampton; Anne Fontaine, K: Christophe Beaucarne, M: Christopher Gordon, D: Naomi Watts: Lil * Robin Wright: Roz, Xavier Samuel: Ian, James Frecheville: Tom, Sophie Lowe: Hannah, Jessica Tovey: Mary & Ben Mendelsohn: Harold) 111m-Liebesdrama (Roman=Kurzgeschichte The Grandmothers von Doris Lessing, 2003) (02-04; 1304-F)

Diana (Diana, 2012-GB/B/F/S; R: Oliver Hirschbiegel, B: Stephen Jeffreys, K: Rainer Klausmann, M: David Holmes & Keefus Ciancia, D: Naomi Watts: Prinzessin Diana * Naveen Andrews: Hasnat Khan) 113m-Drama (Buch Diana: Her Last Love von Kate Snell, 2001) (06-09; 1309)

Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) (Birdman - oder die unverhoffte Macht der Ahnungslosigkeit, 2013-USA; R: Alejandro González Iñárritu, B: Alejandro G[onzález] Iñárritu, Nicolás Giacobone, Alexander Dinelaris, Jr., Armando Bo, K: Emmanuel Lubezki, M [drum score]: Antonio Sánchez, D: Michael Keaton: Riggan * Zach Galifianakis: Jake * Edward Norton: Mike * Andrea Riseborough: Laura * Amy Ryan: Sylvia * Emma Stone: Sam * Naomi Watts: Lesley) 119m-Tragikomödie (04-05; 1410)

St. Vincent (St. Vincent * St. Vincent - Mein himmlischer Nachbar, 2013-USA; R+B: Theodore Melfi, K: John Lindley, M: Theodore Shapiro, D: Bill Murray: Vincent * Melissa McCarthy: Maggie * Naomi Watts: Daka, Chris O'Dowd: Brother Geraghty, Terrence Howard: Zucko, Jaeden Lieberher: Oliver) 102m-Komödie (07-08; 1410)

While We're Young (Gefühlt Mitte Zwanzig, 2013-USA; R+B: Noah Baumbach, K: Sam Levy, M: James Murphy, D: Ben Stiller: Josh, Naomi Watts: Cornelia, Adam Driver: Jamie, Amanda Seyfried: Darby, Charles Grodin: Leslie Breitbart, Adam Horovitz: Fletcher) 97m-Tragikomödie (09-11; 1503)

(The Divergent Series:) Insurgent (Die Bestimmung - Insurgent, 2014-USA; R: Robert Schwentke, B: Brian Duffield, Akiva Goldsman, Mark Bomback, K: Florian Ballhaus, M: Joseph Trapanese, D: Shailene Woodley: Tris, Theo James: Four, Octavia Spencer: Johanna, Jai Courtney: Eric, Ray Stevenson: Marcus Eaton, Zoë Kravitz: Christina, Miles Teller: Peter, Ansel Elgort: Caleb, Maggie Q: Tori Wu & Naomi Watts: Evelyn Johnson-Eaton & Kate Winslet: Jeanine) 119m-Sci-Fi-Action (Roman von Veronica Roth, 2012) (05-09; 1503)

The Sea of Trees (The Sea of Trees, 2014-USA; R: Gus Van Sant, B: Chris Sparling, K: Kasper Tuxen, M: Mason Bates, D: Matthew McConaughey: Arthur Brennan ° Ken Watanabe: Takumi Nakamura & Naomi Watts: Joan Brennan) 110m-Drama (07-09; 1608)

Demolition (Demolition - Lieben und Leben, 2014-USA; R: Jean-Marc Vallée, B: Bryan Sipe, K: Yves Bélanger, MS: Susan Jacobs, D: Jake Gyllenhaal: Davis ° Naomi Watts: Karen ° Chris Cooper: Phil, Judah Lewis: Chris) 101m-Tragikomödie (09-?; 1604)

3 Generations / About Ray (Alle Farben des Lebens, 2014-USA; R: Gaby Dellal, B: Nikole Beckwith, Gaby Dellal, K: David Johnson, M: Michael Brook, D: Naomi Watts: Maggie * Elle Fanning: Ray & Susan Sarandon: Dolly, Tate Donovan: Craig, Linda Emond: Frances, Sam Trammell: Matthew) 92m-Drama (11-12; 1705)

Shut In / Oppression (Shut In, 2015-F/CDN; R: Farren Blackburn, B: Christina Hodson, K: Yves Bélanger, M: Nathaniel Méchaly, D: Naomi Watts: Mary Portman, Oliver Platt: Dr. Wilson, Charlie Heaton: Stephen, Jacob Tremblay: Tom, David Cubitt: Doug, Clémentine Poidatz: Lucy) 90m-Psychothriller (03-04; 1611)

(The Divergent Series:) Allegiant (Die Bestimmung - Allegiant, 2015-USA; R: Robert Schwentke, B: Noah Oppenheim, Adam Cooper, Bill Collage, K: Florian Ballhaus, M: Joseph Trapanese, D: Shailene Woodley: Beatrice "Tris" Prior, Theo James: Four, Jeff Daniels: David, Miles Teller: Peter, Ansel Elgort: Caleb Prior, Zoë Kravitz: Christina, Maggie Q: Tori, Ray Stevenson: Marcus Eaton, Bill Skarsgård: Matthew & Octavia Spencer: Johanna & Naomi Watts: Evelyn Johnson-Eaton) 120m-Sci-Fi-Action (Roman Allegiant von Veronica Roth, 2013) (05-08; 1603)

The Book of Henry (The Book of Henry, 2015-USA; R: Colin Trevorrow, B: Gregg Hurwitz, K: John Schwartzman, M: Michael Giacchino, D: Naomi Watts: Susan Carpenter, Jaeden Lieberher: Henry Carpenter, Jacob Tremblay: Peter Carpenter, Sarah Silverman: Sheila, Lee Pace: Dr. David Daniels, Maddie Ziegler: Christina & Dean Norris: Glenn Sickleman) 105m-Thriller (09-11; 1706)

Chuck (Chuck - Der wahre Rocky, 2015-USA; R: Philippe Falardeau, B: Jeff Feuerzeig, Jerry Stahl, Michael Cristofer, Liev Schreiber, K: Nicolas Bolduc, M: Corey Allen Jackson, D: Liev Schreiber: Chuck Wepner * Elisabeth Moss: Phyllis & Ron Perlman: Al Braverman & Naomi Watts: Linda, Jim Gaffigan: John Stoehr, Michael Rapaport: Don Wepner, Pooch Hall: Muhammad Ali, Morgan Spector: Sylvester Stallone, Jason Jones: Arty, William Hill: Paddy Flood, Wass Stevens: Johnny Dicesare) 98m-Sportlerdrama (10-12; 1705) AT: The Bleeder

The Glass Castle (Schloss aus Glas, 2016-USA; R: Destin Daniel Cretton, B: Destin Daniel Cretton, Andrew Lanham, K: Brett Pawlak, M: Joel P. West, D: Brie Larson: Jeannette, Woody Harrelson: Rex, Max Greenfield: David, Sarah Snook: Lori & Naomi Watts: Rose Mary) 127m-Biopicdrama (Buch von Jeannette Walls, 2005) (05?06-08; 1708)

Ophelia (Ophelia, 2017-USA/GB; R: Claire McCarthy, B: Semi Chellas, K: Denson Baker, M: Steven Price, D: Daisy Ridley: Ophelia * Naomi Watts: Königin Gertrude/Mechtild & Clive Owen: Claudius, George MacKay: Hamlet, Tom Felton: Laertes, Devon Terrell: Horatio) 114m-Liebesdrama (Roman von Lisa Klein, 2006) (04-07; 1906)

Luce (2017-USA; R: Julius Onah, B: JC Lee, Julius Onah, K: Larkin Seiple, M: Ben Salisbury & Geoff Barrow, D: Naomi Watts: Amy Edgar ° Octavia Spencer: Harriet Wilson ° Kelvin Harrison, Jr.: Luce Edgar, Norbert Leo Butz: Dan Towson & Tim Roth: Peter Edgar) 109m-Drama (Bühnenstück von JC Lee) (11-?; 1908)

The Wolf Hour (2017/18-USA/GB; R+B: Alistair Banks Griffin, K: Khalid Mohtaseb, M: Danny Bensi & Saunder Jurriaans, D: Naomi Watts: June Leigh, Jennifer Ehle: Margot, Emory Cohen: Billy, Kelvin Harrison, Jr.: Freddie) 99m-Psychothriller (11-?; 1912)

AWARDS

San Diego Film Critics Society Award (beste Nebendarstellerin) für Mulholland Drive (2001)

National Society of Film Critics Award (beste Darstellerin) für Mulholland Drive (2002)

Saturn Award (beste Darstellerin) für The Ring [Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, 2003]

San Diego Film Critics Society Award (beste Darstellerin) für für 21 Grams (2003)

Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award (beste Darstellerin) für 21 Grams (2004)

London Critics Circle Film Award (Actress of the Year) für King Kong (2006)

Saturn Award (beste Darstellerin) für King Kong [Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, 2006]

Naomi Watts [Wikipedia + filmography]

Naomi Watts [IMDB]

Naomi Watts [Encyclopaedia Britannica]

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