George CUKOR
* 07.07.1899, New York (City), USA † 24.01.1983, Los Angeles, USA

Regisseur * 1919 Inspizient eines Chicagoer Theaterensembles * ab Mitte der 20er Jahre Regisseur am Broadway * 1929 (nach Einführung des Tonfilms) geht nach Hollywood - anfangs Dialogschreiber [dialogue director] für Paramount * 1931 erste eigenständige Regiearbeit (Tarnished Lady) * Wechsel zu RKO (1932) und dann zu MGM (1935) * 1932 erster Erfolg mit A Bill of Divorcement (zugleich erster von zehn - inklusive TV-Movies - Filmen mit Katharine Hepburn) * in folgenden Jahren etabliert sich als Experte für Klassikeradaptationen (David Copperfield, 1934; Romeo and Juliet, 1936; Camille, 1936) und "Frauenthemen" * 1938 Ende der Zusammenarbeit mit David O. Selznick * 1953/54 dreht seinen ersten Farbfilm (A Star Is Born) * 1963 Gründung der Produktionsfirma G-D-C Productions * in 70er Jahren auch TV-Arbeit (Love among the Ruins, 1974/75; The Corn Is Green, 1978) * inszeniert die erste amerikanisch-russische Koproduktion The Blue Bird (1975/76) * wird von der Kritik als "actor's director" (Schauspielerregisseur) bzw. "woman's director" (Frauenregisseur) bezeichnet
FILMS

Grumpy (1930-USA; d: George Cukor, Cyril Gardner, B: Doris Anderson, K: David Abel, D: Cyril Maude, Phillips Holmes, Frances Dade, Paul Lukas) 74m-Melodram (Bühnenstück von Horace Hodges & Thomas Wigney Percyval, 1913) (3008)

The Virtuous Sin (1930-USA; R: George Cukor, Louis J. Gasnier, B: Martin Brown; Louise Long, K: David Abel, D: Walter Huston, Kay Francis, Kenneth MacKenna) 80m-Liebesdrama (Roman A Tábornok von Lajos Zilahy, 1928) (3010, NY)

The Royal Family of Broadway (1930-USA; d: George Cukor, Cyril Gardner, B: [Herman J. Mankiewicz, Gertrude Purcell], K: George J. Folsey, D: Ina Claire * Fredric March) 82m-Tragikomödie (Bühnenstück The Royal Family von Edna Ferber & George S. Kaufman, 1927) (3101)

Tarnished Lady (1931-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Donald Ogden Stewart, K: Larry Williams, D: Tallulah Bankhead * Clive Brook) 80m-Drama (01-?; 3105)

Girls about Town (1931-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Raymond Griffith, Brian Marlow; Zoë Akins, K: Ernest Haller, D: Kay Francis ° Joel McCrea ° Lilyan Tashman ° Eugene Pallette & Alan Dinehart) 80m-Komödie (08-?; 3111)

What Price Hollywood? (1932-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Gene Fowler, Rowland Brown; Jane Murfin, Ben Markson, K: Charles Rosher, ML: Max Steiner, D: Constance Bennett, Lowell Sherman, Neil Hamilton, Gregory Ratoff) 88m-Drama (04-05; 3206)

A Bill of Divorcement (Eine Scheidung, 1932-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Howard Estabrook, Harry Wagstaff Gribble, K: Sid/ney Hickox, ML: Max Steiner, D: John Barrymore, Katharine Hepburn, Billie Burke, David Manners) 70/6m-Drama (Bühnenstück von Clemence Dane, 1921) (07-?; 3209)

Rockabye (1932-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Jane Murfin, K: Charles Rosher, ML: Max Steiner, D: Constance Bennett, Joel McCrea, Paul Lukas) 70/5m-Drama (07-?/+09; 3211)

Our Betters (1932/33-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Jane Murfin, Harry Wagstaff Gribble, K: Charles Rosher, ML: Max Steiner, D: Constance Bennett, Anita Louise, Gilbert Roland, Charles Starrett) 80m-Tragikomödie (Bühnenstück von W. Somerset Maugham, 1917) (12-?; 3303)

Dinner at Eight (Dinner um acht, 1933-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Frances Marion, Herman J. Mankiewicz; Donald Ogden Stewart, K: William H. Daniels, M: William Axt, D: Marie Dressler * John Barrymore * Wallace Beery * Jean Harlow * Lionel Barrymore * Lee Tracy * Edmund Lowe * Billie Burke) 113m-Komödie (Bühnenstück von George S. Kaufman & Edna Ferber, 1932) (03-05; 3308)

Little Women (Vier Schwestern, 1933-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Sarah Y. Mason, Victor Heerman, K: Henry Gerrard, M: Max Steiner, D: Katharine Hepburn, Joan Bennett, Paul Lukas, Frances Dee, Jean Parker, Edna May Oliver, Douglass Montgomery, Henry Stephenson) 117m-Melodram (Roman von Louisa May Alcott, 1868) (06-09; 3311)

David Copperfield / The Personal History, Adventures, Experience, & Observation of David Copperfield the Younger (David Copperfield, 1934-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Howard Estabrook; Hugh Walpole, K: Oliver T. Marsh, M: Herbert Stothart, D: W.C. Fields, Lionel Barrymore, Madge Evans, Maureen O'Sullivan, Edna May Oliver, Lewis Stone, Frank Lawton, Freddie Bartholomew, Elizabeth Allan, Roland Young) 133m-Drama (Roman von Charles Dickens, 1849-50) (09-11; 3501)

Sylvia Scarlett (Sylvia Scarlett, 1935-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Gladys Unger, John Collier, Mortimer Offner, K: Joseph H. August, ML: Roy Webb, D: Katharine Hepburn, Cary Grant, Brian Aherne, Edmund Gwenn) 94m-Abenteuerkomödie (Roman The Early Life and Adventures of Sylvia Scarlett von Compton MacKenzie, 1918) (08-10; 3601)

Romeo and Juliet (1935/36-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Talbot Jennings, K: William H. Daniels, M: Herbert Stothart, D: Norma Shearer * Leslie Howard) 127m-Romanze (Bühnenstück von William Shakespeare, 1597) (12-04; 3704)

Camille (Die Kameliendame, 1936-USA) (Roman von Alexandre Dumas, fils) (07-10; 3612)

Holiday (Holiday, 1938-USA) (Bühnenstück von Philip Barry) (02-04; 3806)

Zaza (1938-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Zoe Akins, K: Charles Lang, ML: Boris Morros, D: Claudette Colbert, Herbert Marshall) 83/7m-Drama (Bühnenstück von Pierre Berton & Charles Simon, 1898) (06-09; 3901)

The Women (Die Frauen, 1939-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Anita Loos, Jane Murfin, K: Oliver T. Marsh, Joseph Ruttenberg, M: Edward Ward, David Snell, D: Norma Shearer * Joan Crawford * Rosalind Russell) 133m-Komödie (Bühnenstück von Clare Boothe Luce, 1936) (04-07; 3909)

Susan and God (Susan und der liebe Gott, 1940-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Anita Loos, K: Robert Planck, M: Herbert Stothart, D: Joan Crawford * Fredric March) 116m-Tragi/komödie (Bühnenstück von Rachel Crothers, 1937) (02-?; 4006)

The Philadelphia Story (Die Nacht vor der Hochzeit, 1940-USA) (Bühnenstück von Philip Barry) (07-08; 4012)

A Woman's Face (Erpressung, 1941-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Donald Ogden Stewart, Elliot Paul, K: Robert Planck, M: Bronislau Kaper, D: Joan Crawford * Melvyn Douglas) 105m-Thrillermelodram (Bühnenstück Il était une fois von Francis de Croisset, 1932) (01-03; 4105)

Two-Faced Woman (Die Frau mit den zwei Gesichtern, 1941-USA; R: George Cukor, B: S.N. Behrman, Salka Viertel, George Oppenheimer, K: Joseph Ruttenberg, M: Bronislau Kaper, D: Greta Garbo * Melvyn Douglas) 94m-Komödie (06-08; 4111)

Her Cardboard Lover (1942-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Jacques Deval, John Collier, Anthony Veiller, William H. Wright, K: Harry Stradling, Robert Planck, M: Franz Waxman, D: Norma Shearer * Robert Taylor) 93m-Liebeskomödie (Bühnenstück Dans sa cadeur naïve von Jacques Deval /1926/ + Bühnenstück Her Cardboard Lover von Valerie Wyngate & P.G. Wodehouse /1927/) (01-03/+04; 4206)

Keeper of the Flame (Die ganze Wahrheit, 1942-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Donald Ogden Stewart, K: William H. Daniels, M: Bronislau Kaper, D: Spencer Tracy * Katharine Hepburn) 100m-Drama (Roman von I.A.R. Wylie, 1942) (07-09/+10; 4212)

Gaslight (Das Haus der Lady Alquist, 1943-USA) (Bühnenstück von Patrick Hamilton) (08-11/+12-; 4405)

Winged Victory (1944-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Moss Hart, K: Glen MacWilliams, M: David Rose, D: Lon McCallister * Jeanne Crain * Edmond O'Brien * Jane Ball * Mark Daniels * Jo-Carroll Dennison * Don Taylor * Judy Holliday * Lee J. Cobb * Peter Lind Hayes * Alan Baxter) 130m-Kriegsdrama (Bühnenstück von Moss Hart, 1943) (06-09; 4412)

A Double Life (Ein Doppelleben, 1947-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Ruth Gordon, Garson Kanin, K: Milton Krasner, M: Miklos Rozsa, D: Ronald Colman, Signe Hasso, Edmond O'Brien) 104m-Krimimelodram (06-09; 4802, NY)

Edward, My Son (Edward, mein Sohn, 1948-GB) (Bühnenstück von Robert Morley & Noel Langley) (06-?; 4903)

Adam's Rib (Ehekrieg, 1949-USA) (05-07; 4911)

A Life of Her Own (1950-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Isobel Lennart, K: George J. Folsey, M: Bronislau Kaper, D: Lana Turner * Ray Milland) 109m-Melodram (01-03/+04; 5009)

Born Yesterday (Die ist nicht von gestern, 1950-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Albert Mannheimer, K: Joseph Walker, M: Frederick Hollander, D: Judy Holliday * Broderick Crawford * William Holden) 103m-Komödie (Bühnenstück von Garson Kanin, 1946) (06-08; 5012)

The Model and the Marriage Broker (1951-USA; d: George Cukor, B: Charles Brackett, Walter Reisch, Richard [L.] Breen, K: Milton Krasner, M: Cyril [J.] Mockridge, D: Jeanne Crain * Scott Brady * Thelma Ritter) 103m-Komödie (06-07; 5112)

The Marrying Kind (Happy-End... und was kommt dann?, 1951-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Ruth Gordon, Garson Kanin, K: Joseph Walker, M: Hugo Friedhofer, D: Judy Holliday, Aldo Ray, Madge Kennedy) 92m-Tragikomödie (09-11; 5204)

Pat and Mike (Pat und Mike, 1952-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Ruth Gordon, Garson Kanin, K: William H. Daniels, M: David Raksin, D: Spencer Tracy * Katharine Hepburn) 95m-Komödie (01-02; 5206)

The Actress (Theaterfieber, 1952/53-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Ruth Gordon, K: Harold Rosson, M: Bronislau Kaper, D: Spencer Tracy * Jean Simmons * Teresa Wright) 90m-Melodram (Bühnenstück Years Ago von Ruth Gordon, 1946) (12-01; 5309)

It Should Happen to You (Die unglaubliche Geschichte der Gladys Glover, 1953-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Garson Kanin, K: Charles Lang, M: Frederick Hollander, D: Judy Holliday, Peter Lawford, Jack Lemmon, Michael O'Shea) 87m-Komödie (05-07; 5403)

A Star Is Born (A Star Is Born * Ein neuer Stern am Himmel, 1953/54-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Moss Hart, K: Sam Leavitt, ML: Ray Heindorf, D: Judy Garland * James Mason) 154/81m-Musikdrama (10-02/+07; 5409, LA)

Bhowani Junction (Knotenpunkt Bhowani, 1955-GB) (Roman von John Masters, 1954) (03-07; 5606-USA)

Les Girls (Die Girls, 1957-USA) (01-04; 5710)

Wild Is the Wind (Wild ist der Wind, 1957-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Arnold Schulman, K: Charles Lang, M: Dimitri Tiomkin, D: Anna Magnani * Anthony Quinn * Anthony Franciosa) 114m-Melodram (05-06; 5712)

Heller in Pink Tights (Die Dame und der Killer, 1959-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Dudley Nichols, Walter Bernstein, K: Harold Lipstein, M: Daniele Amfitheatrof, D: Sophia Loren * Anthony Quinn) 100m-Westernkomödie (Roman Heller with a Gun von Louis L'Amour, 1954) (01-04; 6003)

Let's Make Love (Machen wir's in Liebe, 1960-USA) (6008)

The Chapman Report (Der Chapman-Report, 1961-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Wyatt Cooper, Don M. Mankiewicz; Grant Stuart, Gene Allen, K: Harold Lipstein, M: Leonard Rosenman, D: Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. ° Shelley Winters ° Jane Fonda ° Claire Bloom ° Glynis Johns ° Ray Danton ° Ty Hardin ° Andrew Duggan ° John Dehner) 125m-Drama (Roman von Irving Wallace, 1960) (?-12; 6210)

My Fair Lady (My Fair Lady, 1963-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Alan Jay Lerner, K: Harry Stradling, MS: André Previn, D: Audrey Hepburn * Rex Harrison) 170m-Musicalkomödie (Musical von Frederick Loewe & Alan Jay Lerner /1956/ > Bühnenstück Pygmalion von George Bernard Shaw /1914/) (08-?; 6410)

Justine (Alexandria - Treibhaus der Sünde, 1968/69-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Lawrence B. Marcus, K: Leon Shamroy, M: Jerry Goldsmith, D: Anouk Aimee * Dirk Bogarde * Robert Forster * Anna Karina * Philippe Noiret * Michael York) 116m-Drama (Roman The Alexandria Quartet von Lawrence Durrell, 1957-60) (6908)

Travels with My Aunt (Reisen mit meiner Tante, 1972-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Jay Presson Allen, Hugh Wheeler, K: Douglas Slocombe, M: Tony Hatch, D: Maggie Smith, Alec McCowen, Louis Gossett, Jr., Robert Stephens) 109m-Komödie (Roman von Graham Greene, 1969) (03-06; 7212)

The Blue Bird / Синяя птица [Sinjaja ptica] (Der blaue Vogel, 1975-USA/SU; R: George Cukor, B: Hugh Whitemore, Alfred Hayes, K: Frederick A. Young, Jonas Gricjus, M: Irwin Kostal, D: Elizabeth Taylor * Jane Fonda * Cicely Tyson) 99m-Kinderfilm (Bühnenstück L'oiseau bleu von Maurice Maeterlinck, 1908) (01-08; 7605)

Rich and Famous (Reich und berühmt, 1980-USA; R: George Cukor, B: Gerald Ayres, K: Don/ald Peterman, M: Georges Delerue, D: Jacqueline Bisset * Candice Bergen) 117m-Frauendrama (Bühnenstück Old Acquaintance von John Van Druten, 1940) (07-?; 8110)


Desire Me (1946-47-USA * keine Regieangabe) 91m (03-08/+09>07.47; 4709, NY) > According to Hollywood Reporter news items and production charts, George Cukor was the film's first director. The Variety review notes that Cukor ["script didn't really make sense, and when it was finished I was just removed from the picture, and another director reshot a good deal of it with the understanding that his name wouldn't appear on the credits. Since very little of the final footage is mine, I wouldn't allow my name to be on the picture either."] directed most of the film, and that Mervyn LeRoy "finished it."

Song without End (Nur wenige sind auserwählt, 1959-USA * Charles Vidor) (05-09; 6008) > GC übernahm die Regie für den während der Dreharbeiten verstorbenen Charles Vidor - lehnte screen credit ab

AWARDS

Academy Awards / Oscars (beste Regie + bester Film) für My Fair Lady (1965)

Golden Globe (beste Regie) für My Fair Lady (1965)

BAFTA Award (bester Film) für My Fair Lady (1966)

Goldener Löwe fürs Lebenswerk [Filmfestspiele Venedig 1982]

BOOKS

Augusto M. Torres: George Cukor. Madrid: Cátedra, 1992 | 2007 > 279 pages : illustrations

Emanuel Levy: George Cukor, Master of Elegance... New York: Morrow, 1994 > 464 pages : illustrations

George Cukor: On/Off Hollywood. Paris: Capricci, 2013 > 221 p. : ill. * Un ouvrage collectif, sous la direction de Fernando Ganzo


James Bernardoni: George Cukor: A Critical Study and Filmography. Jefferson/London: McFarland, 1985

This work illuminates the art of George Cukor, the director of some of the most acclaimed and popular films ever to come out of Hollywood. Eight films, ranging in time from David Copperfield (1935) to Rich and Famous (1981) and in mood from the fairy-tale comedy of The Philadelphia Story to the intense melodrama of Cukor’s masterpiece, A Star Is Born, are closely analyzed in a search for the elusive secret of Cukor’s success. Through his long and varied body of work Cukor was preoccupied with certain themes of enduring significance that found expression through his mastery of film direction. More than a mere Hollywood craftsman or the congenial collaborator of such Hollywood luminaries as Hepburn, Grant, Tracy, and Monroe, George Cukor was a true film artist. > ix, 180 pages : illustrations * 21 photos, filmography, bibliography, index


Robert Emmet Long [Hg.]: George Cukor: Interviews. Jackson/London: University Press of Mississippi, 2001

For investing movies with an image of style and glamour George Cukor (1899-1983) is considered one of the founding fathers of the Golden Age of Hollywood. The roll call of the great films he made and the stars he directed validates his rank as one of cinema's greatest moviemakers. "The only really important thing I have to say about George Cukor," Katharine Hepburn proclaimed, "is that all the other directors I have worked with starred themselves. But George 'starred' the actor. He didn't want people to say, 'this great director.' He wanted them to say 'this great actor.' " Along with introducing Hepburn and Greta Garbo to American audiences, he worked with many of the most acclaimed movie actresses of his day, including Vivien Leigh, Olivia de Havilland, Jean Harlow, Elizabeth Taylor, Joan Crawford, Ingrid Bergman, Ava Gardner, Claudette Colbert, Angela Lansbury, Judy Holliday, Audrey Hepburn, and Marilyn Monroe. These interviews are a pleasure to read because Cukor is so immersed in his subject and so forthright in his observations. He comes to life immediately with disarming candor and infectious enthusiasm for cinema and the people who make it. In addition to discussing his romantic comedies, Cukor talks about his famous screen adaptations of classic novels and plays, including Little Women (1933) and David Copperfield (1935). His experience of being fired by producer David O. Selznick partway through the shooting of Gone With the Wind (1939) surfaces in nearly every interview. Instead of having his career derailed by this dismissal, however, he continued his rise as one of America's premier directors. In his cornucopia of films are Holiday (1938), The Philadelphia Story (1940), Adam's Rib (1949), Born Yesterday (1950), A Star Is Born (1954), Let's Make Love (1960), and My Fair Lady (1964). Cukor was a man of myriad dimensions. In his last years he opened up about his private life and his previously undisclosed homosexuality. He was ardent in his friendships and single-minded in his devotion to making quality movies for a popular audience. > xli, 191 p., [8] p. of plates : ports.


Patrick McGilligan: George Cukor: A Double Life. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013

One of the highest-paid studio contract directors of his time, George Cukor was nominated five times for an Academy Award as Best Director. In publicity and mystique he was dubbed the “women’s director” for guiding the most sensitive leading ladies to immortal performances, including Greta Garbo, Ingrid Bergman, Judy Garland, and - in ten films, among them The Philadelphia Story and Adam’s Rib - his lifelong friend and collaborator Katharine Hepburn. But behind the “women’s director” label lurked the open secret that set Cukor apart from a generally macho fraternity of directors: he was a homosexual, a rarity among the top echelon. Patrick McGilligan’s biography reveals how Cukor persevered within a system fraught with bigotry while becoming one of Hollywood’s consummate filmmakers. > 32 pp. b&w photos. 456 pp.

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